2016 Shiraz, Iran
Shiraz, Iran. Nominated as a City-Region.
Shiraz is the sixth biggest city in Iran and is the capital of Fars Province. It is located in the southwest of the country on the ‘Rudkhaneye Khoshk’ seasonal river; 200K m from south seashore of Iran. It is built over a green plain of the Zagros Mountains, 1500 meters above sea level with a moderate climate and regular seasons.
Fars province is the origin of two biggest Persian empires from 550 BC to 630 AD (Achaemenian Empire from 550 BC to 330 BC and Sassanid Empire from 241 AD to 630 AD) and most of historical sites of these two dynasties are located in this area (Gershevitch, 1985). Shiraz has been a regional trade centre since the 8th century AD (the earliest reference to the city is dated on 500 BC). In the 13th century AD, it had become a leading centre of visual arts and publications for three centuries. Shiraz was the capital of Iran (historical Persia) during the Buwayhid dynasty in 11th century AD and the "Zand" dynasty in 18th century AD (Khoobnazar, 2001).
Shiraz has a population of 1.3 million in 2011 (Figure 4). According to an official survey, the shares of the different modes of travel in this city are as follows: private cars and taxis: 66 percent, buses: 19 percent and the other modes: 15 percent which is an unsustainable trend in a longer term. Therefore, the public bus is the main mode of public transportation (Soltani and Esmaeili Ivaki, 2011; Soltani and Marandi, 2011). For the time being, public transportation in Shiraz relies mainly on the bus network and the subway system is not opened yet. The metropolitan area consists of 9 Zones each of which has its own municipal authority. Shiraz historical zone consists of different public spaces and buildings such as bazaar, mosques, schools, houses and palaces as well as traditional squares and streets. Shiraz is known as the city of poets and flowers. It is also considered to be the "city of gardens", due to the numerous gardens and fruit trees existing in the city. Shiraz economy is based on agriculture, electronic industries and trade (crafts and electronics).
Source: Soltani, A; Ejarifi, E. “ A Case study of sustainable urban planning principles in Curitiba (Brazil) and their applicability in Shiraz (Iran)”, in International Journal of Development and Sustainability, Volume 1 Number 2 (2012): Pages 120-134. http://isdsnet.com/ijds-v1n2-6.pdf