2016 Vienna, Austria
Vienna, Austria, nominated as a Knowledge City-Region (pop 1.794.770).
Vienna is Austria's capital, with a population of round about 1.8 million (2.6 million within the metropolitan area) more than 20% of Austria's population, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union and the second largest German-speaking city after Berlin.
Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is situated in the east of Austria and close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in the so called “Centrope” region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a twin-city metropolitan area with 3 million inhabitants.
In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy and such famous musicians as Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Mahler and others, Vienna is also said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud.
Vienna has a long-standing tradition as a City at the borderline of cultures and nations, which is a significant element of its current identity, position and reputatio
In the Roman period, in the 1st century AD, the Roman settlement “Vindobona” is founded as a border post of the Pannonian Region.
· 955: Vienna develops into a trade center at the heart of Europe
· 1278-1918: Under the Habsburgs Vienna grows and becomes the Capital of a huge multicultural and multilingual Austro-Hungarian empire. The cultures, knowledge and diversity of the whole empire bundle together in Vienna. The Habsburgs found universities and museums and are generous patrons of the arts for centuries.
· 1365: The University of Vienna is founded as the first German-speaking University.
· 1814/15: Viennese Congress: New Orientation for Europe after the defeat of Napoleon.
· Beginning of the 20th century: Vienna has achieved to be a global Knowledge Capital, world-leading in sciences, culture, politics; Vienna is the big apple of cultures, languages and knowledge.
· 1905: Bertha von Suttner is the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize (for peace)
· Modernism: Klimt, Freud, Schönberg, and many others co-create a new thinking, integrating science and art, and promoting a psychological, constructivistic approach to knowledge
· Global thought leaders in Knowledge Sciences: Schumpeter, von Hayek, Drucker, von Mises, von Förster and many other Austrian scientists lay the scientific foundation of the Knowledge Society – many of them left Austria during the Nazi-occupation period or even earlier.
· 1938: Vienna is invaded by Nazi-Germany; expulsion and murder of intellectuals, especially Jews and political opponents.
· 1945: Vienna is liberated, but still occupied by the USA, France, UK and Soviet Union. In 1955, Austria regains its full independence and proclaims neutrality, which will be key for the future development as the preferred meeting place between East and West.
· 1980: United Nations open their headquarters in Vienna, which becomes a diplomatic centre of the World.
· 1989: After the fall of the iron curtain, Vienna becomes the business hub for western companies investing in Eastern Europe, Viennese industry is a main investor in the Eastern European economy. The Airport of Vienna becomes one of the most frequented international hubs, especially for Central and Eastern Europe.
· 1994: Austria joins the European Union, Vienna, at the heart of Europe, develops to be a Knowledge Hub for the World, building on the International Community and its long-standing history at the confluence of cultures and nations. The prosperity, cultural richness, diversity and globalism of the empire still lives in the spirit of the City, the architecture, culture, institutions and the open mindset of the Viennese.
· After centuries of glory, and painful decades of destruction, Vienna after several studies is now known today as the most reputable City, the smartest City, and the City with the best living quality in the World (see the ranking below).
Vienna has followed knowledge-based strategies for decades, but of course not explicitly naming it like this. The current basic strategies for the Vienna Knowledge City are the “Smart City Strategy” and the “Reseach, Technology and Innovation Strategy”. This year, 2015, 650 years after the foundation of the Vienna University - Vienna redefines itself explicitly as a Knowledge City(see attachement: Wissensstadt Wien – Vienna Knowledge City)
The ability to realize this is demonstrated by the results: Vienna has an excellent international ranking:
· "Smart Cities": Ranked No. 1 world-wide (then Toronto, Paris and New York); Source: Boyd Cohen, 2012, http://www.fastcoexist.com/1679127/the-top-10-smart-cities-on-the-planet
· The World's Most Reputable Cities: Ranked No. 1 world-wide; Source: Reputation Institute / CityRepTrak, 2014, www.reputationinstitute.com
· Quality of living: Ranked No. 1 world-wide (then Zürich and Auckland); Soure: Mercer, Quality of Living Survey 2015, London, März 29015, http://www.mercer.com/qualityofliving
· Most prosperous city: Ranked No. 1; UN-HABITAT report "State Of The World’s Cities Report 2012/2013" ranks Vienna as the most prosperous city among 70 metropolises of the world. It looks at factors such as productivity, sustainability, quality of life, and infrastructure. Vienna has received top rankings in all categories and has therefore outperformed cities with an equally high quality of life such as Zurich, Toronto, and Brussels.
· Best Cities for young people to live in: Ranked No. 1 world-wide (then New York and Malta) Source: Best Cities for young people to live in, 2013, www.list25.com
· International Congress and Conventions: Ranked No. 3 world-wide 2013, (after Paris und Madrid); before 2013, Vienna had rank No. 1 for seven years! Source: ICCA (International Congress and Convention Association), http://www.iccaworld.com
· European Green City Index 2009: Ranked No. 4 in Europe (after Kopenhagen, Stockholm and Oslo). Analysed Categories: CO2 Emissions, Energy supply, Buildings, Transport, Water, Air quality, Waste, Agriculture, environmental management. Source: European Green City Index 2009, Economist Intelligence Unit, http://www.eiu.com
· The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2013: Austria has been ranked No. 3 world-wide with Vienna as the main touristic attraction. Source: World Economic Forum, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/TTCR/2013/TTCR_OverallRankings_2013.pdf
· Business Friendliness: Ranked No. 5 worldwide (after Dublin, Manchester, Wroclaw und San Jose); Source: Global Cities of the future 2014/15
· Innovation Cities Index: Ranked No. 6 worldwide (after San Francisco, New York, London, Boston and Paris); Source: www.2thinknow, Innovation Cities Global Index 2014
· Online Cities: Ranked No. 5 worldwide; Vienna after Berlin, Seoul, Barcelona and New York; Source: A Case Study of 31 informational World Cities, Uni Düsseldorf
· Startup-Cities where entrepreneurs want to meet up: Ranked No. 6 worldwide; Vienna after Copenhagen, San Francisco, London, Berlin and New York; Source: Startuptravels, 2014
· Global Power Cities: Ranked No. 10 worldwide; Source: Global Power City Index 2014, The Mori Memorial Foundation.